Interjection in English Grammar

What is Interjection?

Interjections are used to express emotion or to catch attention. These are rarely used in formal or business writing but commonly appears in advertising and promotional material, fiction, informal writ-
ing, and personal letters.
These are some of the most commonly used interjections:

never
great
help
ah
alas
my goodness
congratulations
good grief
hurry
no way
oh
ouch
outstanding
ugh
Wow

Conjunction in English grammar

What is a Conjunction:

Conjunctions link words or groups of words to other parts of the sentence and show the relationship between them.

The four basic type of conjunctions are:
a. Coordinating conjunctions
b. Correlative conjunctions
c. Subordinating conjunctions
d. Linking adverbs

Coordinating conjunctions:

It joins together two or more elements of equal rank. Main coordinating conjunctions are : and, or, nor, either, neither, also, but, for.
The elements joined by coordinating conjunctions can be single words—nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns—or phrases or
clauses.

The camera and its lens were repaired. (nouns)
We called and called, but none of you answered. (verbs)
He is a sore but victorious player tonight. (adjectives)
You can have it done quickly or thoroughly. (adverbs)
She and I seldom agree on anything. (pronouns)
We can go over the river or through the woods. (prepositional phrases)
Did you know that he’s never eaten a hot dog, had a real root beer, nor played miniature golf? (verb phrases)
She went home last night and found the jury summons waiting for her. (clauses)

Correlative Conjunctions:
Conjunctions which are used in pairs, are called correlative conjunctions. They emphasize the elements being joined. Some of the most frequently used correlative conjunctions are as:
both . . . and; We both love and honor him
either . . . or; Either take it or leave it.
neither . . . nor; It is neither useful nor ornamental.
not only . . . but also; Not only is he foolish, but also stubborn.
Correlative conjunctions also join elements of equal rank. Make sure that the elements following each part of the construction are truly equal.

Subordinating Conjunctions:
Unlike the other conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions join elements of unequal rank in a sentence. A Subordinating
Conjunction joins a clause to another on which it depends for its full meaning.
Subordinating Conjunctions examples:
when – When I was a kid, I use to think so.
where – He found his wallet where he had left it.
while – Make hay while the sun shines.
after – After the match was over I left from my office.
because – He ran away because he was afraid.
as – As he was not there, I spoke to his mother.
if – You will succeed if you work hard.
that – Tell your dad that uncle will not come.
though – I finished first though I started late.
although – I missed the train although the driver drove quite fast.
till – Will you wait till they come?
until – He waited for my friend until he came.
before – Finish your breakfast before you leave for your office.
unless – He will not pay unless he is forced.

Linking Adverbs:
Linking adverbs are used to join two independent clauses, that is, clauses with a subject-verb combination that can stand alone.
It indicates the relationship between two ideas expressed in independent clauses. In general, linking adverbs reflect results, contrast, or continuation.

Results:
accordingly
as a result
therefore
thus

Contrast:
nevertheless
however
nonetheless
conversely

Continuation:
furthermore
further
in addition
also

Linking adverbs can appear at the beginning of the second clause they are joining. In such cases, they are generally preceded by ” ; ” and followed by ” , “.
They also can stand within the second clause or sentence and often are set off by commas.

We reached late at night; however, no one complained.
I fail to see your point; furthermore, your entire argument is insignificant.
The strike delayed shipment; therefore, your order will not be sent on time.
The storm broke two speakers; the band, however, had spare ones in their van.

 

Preposition in English Grammar

What is a Preposition?

Definition : Prepositions basically are the connecting words that shows the relationship among words in a sentence.
The prepositions means – that, which is place before.
Nouns, pronouns, gerund phrases, or noun clauses can be
the objects of prepositions. Objects together with the preposition form a prepositional phrase. These phrases act as adjectives modifying nouns and pronouns or as adverbs modifying verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

Kinds of Prepositions:
(1) Simple Prepositions
(2) Compound Prepositions
(3) Phrase Prepositions

Simple Prepositions:
Example of some simple prepositions are – with, for , of, off, on, at, in, out, till, to, up, by, from, through.

Compound Prepositions:
Compound Prepositions are usually formed by prefixing a Preposition to a Noun, Adjective or Adverb.
Some example of compound prepositions are:
above
across
about
along
amidst
around
among
amongst
below
behind
before
beneath
between
beside
beyond
outside
inside
underneath
without
within

Phrase Prepositions :
Some prepositions consist more than one word and appears as phrases and are called phrase prepositions.
Their use is frequent in spoken & written communication. Some examples of phrase prepositions are given below:

according to
agreeably to
along with
away from
because of
by dint of
by means of
by reason of
by virtue of
by way of
conformably to
for the sake of
in accordance with
in addition to
in (on) behalf of
in case of
in comparison to
in compliance with
in consequence of
in course of
in favour of
in front of
in lieu of
in order to
in place of
in reference to
in regard to
in spite of
instead of
in the event of
on account of
owing to
with a view to
with an eye to
with reference to
with regard to

 

Adverb in English Grammar

what is an adverb?

Adverbs are used to describe an action or state of being in greater detail and can provide a more clear picture of what is happening.
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs and they answer the questions: When, Where, How, or How much?

She was dressed all in pink.
He paid his debts down to the last penny.
Have you read all through this book ?
At what hour is the sun right above us ?
She was sitting close him.

Kinds of Adverbs:

  • Adverbs of Time
  • Adverbs of Frequency
  • Adverbs of Place
  • Adverbs of Manner
  • Adverbs of Degree or Quantity
  • Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation
  • Adverbs of Reason

Adverbs of Time:
Late
Ago
Soon
Yesterday
Never
Since
Before.
Now
Lately.
Daily.
Already.
Once
Formerly etc.

Adverbs of Frequency:
Twice
Once
Often
Seldom
Again.
Frequently
Always etc.

Adverbs of Place: (Where?)
In
Here
There
Over
Upstairs
Around
Out
Through
Backward
Under
Across
Sideways etc.

Adverbs of Manner: (How?)
Nicely
Equally
Carefully
Coldly
Resentfully
Beautifully
Quickly
Tirelessly
Earnestly
Thankfully
Hotly
Handily etc.

Adverbs of Degree: (How Much?)

nearly,
most,
mildly,
however,
completely,
entirely,
excessively,
thoroughly,
much,
somewhat,
less etc.

Adverbs of Reason:

Hence

Therefore

He is hence unable to refuse the charge.
He therefore left home.

Verb in English Grammar

Verb Definition:

A Verb is a word that tells about a person or thing in a sentence. Without a verb it’s almost impossible to make a meaningful sentence. A Verb tells us what a person or thing does; What is done to a person or thing; What a person or thing is.
For example:
Kid laughs very beautifully.
Hari is scolded.
The door is broken.
The dog is dead.
This pot is brittle.
I feel hungry.

Transitive Verb & Intransitive Verb:

Transitive Verb Definition:
A Verb that denotes an action which passes over from the Subject to an Object.

Intransitive Verb:
A Verb that denotes an action which does not pass over to an object

The boy throws the football. (Example of Transitive Verb)
The boy runs fast. (Example of Intransitive Verb)

In above example the verb Throw passes from boy to football. The verb Throw is therefore called Transitive Verb. (Transitive means passing over.)

In second sentence, the action denoted by the verb Runs stops with the doer / Subject boy and does not pass over to an object.

Most of the verbs can be as Transitive & Intransitive both; it depends upon how has it been used within a sentence:

Used Transitively Used Intransitively
The ants fought the wasps. Some ants fight very fiercely.
The shot sank the ship. The ship sank rapidly.
Ring the bell, Rama. The bell rang loudly.
The driver stopped the train. The train stopped suddenly.
He spoke the truth. He spoke haughtily.
The horse kicked the man. This horse never kicks.
I feel a severe pain in my arm. How do you feel ?

Linking Verbs:
Verbs that denote a state of condition are called linking verbs. These verbs link the subject with a noun, pronoun, or adjective that
describes or identifies it. For example:

You look (seem) sleepy.
You look (seem) calm enough—are you?
She felt (seemed) ill at ease in the doctor’s office.

Common linking verb is ‘be’ and its forms: am, is, are, was, were,being, and been.
A few other common linking verbs are given below-
Appear
Grow
Remain
Sound
Become
Hear
Seem
Stay
Feel
Look
Smell
Taste etc.

Auxiliary Verbs or Helping Verbs:

Auxiliary verbs are among the most frequently occurring verbs in the English language. These are used together with a main verb to show the verb’s tense or to form a negative or question as they function in several different ways within a sentence.

Auxiliary Auxiliary + Main Verb
will/shall I will tell them to take the furniture away.
Shall we buy the stuffed moose?
can/could He can operate in the morning.
The patient could come home in a week.
has/have The jury has rendered a verdict.
The defendants have heard the sentence.
do/did I do remember you.
We did meet last week
is/are The satellite is boosting the signal.
They are receiving it in Hawaii.
must/ought They must report any suspicious activity.
She ought to call the security guard.
should/would The flight should land in New Jersey.
We would like to arrive in New York.