Clauses in English Grammar

Clause Definition and Examples:

Clauses are groups of related words that contain a subject-verb combination. Such a group of words that forms part of a sentence, and has a Subject and a Predicate of its own, is called a Clause.
In grammar, simplest form of a clause is – A subject + A verb. Here the subject is “doing” the action and the verb is the action that subject completes. A clause creates a complete statement that can stand alone.

There could mainly be two types of Clauses within a complete sentence.
a. Independent Clause or Main Clause
b. Subordinate Clauses or Dependent Clause

a. Independent Clauses – It expresses a complete thought and can stand by themselves as complete sentences.
b. Subordinate Clauses – It serves as part of a sentence and cannot stand by themselves. They are subordinate to independent clauses.

Independent Clauses Example
-Basement was completely underwater.
-John got us jobs as librarian.

Subordinate Clauses Example 
-by the time John arrived.
-because he works at the school.

Complete sentences
-By the time John arrived, basement was completely underwater.
-John got us jobs as librarian, because he works at the school.

Some other types of Clauses those appear in a sentence are:

-Adverb Clauses

-Adjective Clauses

-Noun Clauses

Adverb Clauses Definition & Example:

A group of words which contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own, and does the work of an Adverb.

Adverb clauses meets three requirements:
i. Contains a subject and verb.
ii. A subordinate conjunction that keeps the clause from expressing a complete thought.
iii. Answers one of these four adverb questions: How? When? Where? or Why?

Joe scrubbed the bathroom floor until his arms ached.
They rested when match ended.
After her appointment at the Dentist, Marry cooked eggs for lunch because she could easily chew an omelet.
The missing eyeglasses are in the refrigerator, where Ben absentmindedly put them down while taking the ice cubes.

Adjective Clause Definition & Example:

Adjective clause are also called Adjectival clause or Relative Clause. It’s a group of words which contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own and does the work of an Adjective.
It does not express a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone as a sentence, we must connect each adjective clause to a main clause to complete a sentence.

Three requirements of an Adjective Clause:
i. it contains a subject and a verb.
ii. it begins with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why].
iii. it functions as an adjective and answers the question -What kind? How many? or Which one?

Adjective clause patterns:
i. Relative Pronoun or Adverb + Subject + Verb
ii. Relative Pronoun as Subject + Verb

Adjective clause examples:

Chewing with his mouth open is the reason why John irritates his sister Julia on the dinning table.
Laughter came out from Marrie, who secretly drunk the whole wine but acting strange about the empty bottle.
The car which has broken windshield is mine.

Noun Clause Definition & Example:

It’s is a group of words which contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own, and does the work of a Noun.
Noun Clauses can be a subject, object, or object of a preposition in a sentence and usually start with words such as how, that, what, whatever, when, where, whether, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, and why.

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